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Need to know:
- Causes needles, branches, or leaves of trees or shrubs to appear black.
- Doesn’t infect plants, but grows on the sugary honeydew excreted by aphids, scales, mealybugs, and other insects.
- Control by preventing or reducing insect populations.
- Commonly infects pine, maple, and elm trees.
Overview of sooty mold
Sooty mold fungi cause needles, branches, or leaves of trees or shrubs to appear black. The common name "sooty mold" is descriptive of the black coating or crust that is formed on these plant surfaces.
Symptoms of sooty mold
Plants may start to suffer from lack of photosynthesis caused by the obstruction of the fungal growth.
Signs of sooty mold
Black hairy or thread-like growth can be seen on any plant surface where honeydew is present.
Disease cycle of sooty mold
Several different species of fungi often exist together to cause the sooty appearance. These fungi don't infect plants, but grow on the sugary honeydew excreted by aphids, scales, mealybugs, and other insects.
The growth of these fungi is primarily an aesthetic problem, although they can be detrimental to plant health by blocking sunlight and interfering with photosynthesis.
Type of Sample Needed for Diagnosis and Confirmation
The Iowa State University Plant & Insect Diagnostic Clinic can help you to investigate and confirm if you plant has this disease. Please see our website for current forms, fees, and instructions on collecting and packing samples. Contact information for each states diagnostic laboratory for U.S. residents. If your sample is from outside of Iowa please do not submit it to the Plant & Insect Diagnostic Clinic without contacting us
Management of sooty mold
Control of sooty mold is targeted at preventing or reducing insect populations. Scales and aphids are usually the culprits in sooty mold infestations. It's important to identify the species of insect present to determine what control measures to apply and when.
In Iowa, sooty mold is most commonly spotted on pine, maple, and elm trees, but can occur in variety of plant species.
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